What is Linux ?

Written by shohal

Linux Introduction

Linux is a community of open-source Unix-like operating systems that are based on the Linux Kernel. It was initially released by Linus Torvalds on September 17, 1991. It is a free and open-source operating system and the source code can be modified and distributed to anyone commercially or non commercially under the GNU General Public License.


Basic Software Installation

The APT is the tool, commonly used to install packages, remotely from the software repository. In short, it’s a simple command-based tool that you use to install files/software. The complete command is apt-get and it’s the easiest way to install files/Software packages. This easy tool informs you about packages that are currently being installed and also it informs you about the packages that are available in repositories.

1.sudo apt-get install ${packagename}

2.sudo apt-get remove ${packagename}

3.sudo apt-get update

4.sudo apt-get upgrade

5.Example: sudo apt-get install ipcalc

Unix Command Line

pwd prints working directory (prints to screen, ie displays the full path, or your location on the filesystem)

ls lists contents of current directory

ls –l lists contents of current directory with extra details

ls /home/user/*.txt lists all files in /home/user ending in .txt

cd change directory to your home directory

cd ~ change directory to your home directory

cd /scratch/user change directory to user on scratch

cd – change directory to the last directory you were in before changing to wherever you are now

mkdir mydir makes a directory called mydir

rmdir mydir removes directory called mydir. mydir must be empty

touch myfile creates a file called myfile. updates the timestamp on the file if it already exists, without modifying its contents

cp myfile myfile2 copies myfile to myfile2. if myfile2 exists, this will overwrite it!

rm myfile removes file called myfile

rm –f myfile removes myfile without asking you for confirmation. useful if using wildcards to remove files ***

cp –r dir newdir copies the whole directory dir to newdir. –r must be specified to copy directory contents recursively

rm –rf mydir this will delete directory mydir along with all its content without asking you for confirmation! ***

nano opens a text editor. see ribbon at bottom for help. ^x means CTRL-x. this will exit nano

nano new.txt opens nano editing a file called new.txt

cat new.txt displays the contents of new.txt

more new.txt displays the contents of new.txt screen by screen. spacebar to pagedown, q to quit

head new.txt displays first 10 lines of new.txt

tail new.txt displays last 10 lines of new.txt

tail –f new.txt displays the contents of a file as it grows, starting with the last 10 lines. ctrl-c to quit.

mv myfile newlocdir moves myfile into the destination directory newlocdir

mv myfile newname renames file to newname. if a file called newname exists, this will overwrite it!

mv dir subdir moves the directory called dir to the directory called subdir

mv dir newdirname renames directory dir to newdirname

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